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Low Carbon Vehicle Technology - Research & Publications

The University and AMAP have established a centre of excellence at Sunderland in Low Carbon Vehicle (LCV) technology over recent years. Our staff are active in a wide range of R & D projects involving, for example, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicle technology, fuel cells, advanced manufacturing in the LCV industry, lightweight materials, vehicle safety and crashworthiness.

The region has recently been recognised as the UK's first Low Carbon Economic Area. AMAP and Sunderland have been key partners in the region's pioneering activities in Low Carbon Vehicle engineering and manufacture.

All our R&D projects are collaborative ventures with industrial partners. Although many are linked with leading regional companies - Smith Electric Vehicles are, for example, the UK's leading producer of electric vehicles - we are also working with industrial and academic partners within the national and international Low Carbon Vehicle community.


Kok, DirkMorris, AdrianKnowles, Michael and Baglee, David (2014) Converter simulation using SimPowerSystems a comparison of drive cycles and control strategies. Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), 2013 International Conference on. pp. 800-805.

Knowles, Michael and Morris, Adrian (2014) The Impact of second Life Electric vehicle Batteries on the Viability of renewable Energy Sources. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4 (1). pp. 152-167. ISSN 2231-0843

Knowles, Michael and Morris, Adrian (2014) Impact of Second Life Electric Vehicle Batteries on the Viability of Renewable Energy Sources. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 4 (1). pp. 152-167. ISSN 2231-0843

Kok, DirkMorris, Adrian and Knowles, Michael (2013) Novel EV drive train topology — A review of the current topologies and proposal for a model for improved drivability. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), 2013 15th European Conference on. pp. 1-10.

Scott, HelenKnowles, MichaelMorris, Adrian and Kok, Dirk (2012) The Role of a Driving Simulator in Driver Training to Improve Fuel Economy. Proceedings of Driving Simulator Conference Europe 2012. pp. 313-325. ISSN 0769-0266

Knowles, MichaelBaglee, DavidMorris, Adrian and Ren, Qinglian (2012) The State of the Art in Fuel Cell Condition Monitoring and Maintenance. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 4. ISSN 2032-6653

Ren, QinglianCrolla, Dave and Morris, Adrian (2010) The effect of Transmission Design on Electric Vehicle (EV) Performance. The Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 4 (3). pp. 46-51. ISSN 1934-8975

Conference or Workshop Item

Development of a low cost mixed fuel hydrogen/petrol system for reducing vehicle emissions

Conference: EEVC2015, European Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress, At Brussels, Belgium

4th December 2015

Kok, Morris, Baglee, O’Brien

Discussions surrounding the hydrogen economy centre primarily on the use of ultra clean hydrogen to power Fuel Cells. Research has shown that enhancing a petrol internal combustion engine (ICE) with hydrogen has the potential to improve fuel economy by 20% to 30% requiring little or no exhaust emissions control. This paper examines the potential for burning hydrogen in ICE as part of a mixed fuel charge in order to take advantage of lower cost brown hydrogen and the advanced nature of the modern petrol ICE. A low-cost mixed fuel ICE solution was developed and installed as a retrofit to a standard spark ignited (SI) petrol ICE production vehicle. The findings from a series of investigative performance tests are presented and show a reduction of three primary pollutants: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbons (HC), along with a set of drive cycle tests from which full emission results were collected. These showed that in a full driving cycle care must be taken with the engine mapping in order to ensure a complete burn in all modes of operation. In addition, the anticipated mono-nitrogen oxides (NO x) increase was impossible to avoid with the developed prototype system but the authors suggest practical steps to reduce this to acceptable levels.

Baglee, DavidKnowles, Michael and Morris, Adrian (2013) Optimisation of Food and Engineering Supply Chain Technology (OPTFEST): A Case Study. In: Comadem 2013, 11 - 13 Jun 2013, Helsinki.

Kok, DirkKnowles, Michael and Morris, Adrian (2012) Building a Driving Simulator as an Electric Vehicle Hardware Development Tool. In: Driving Simulation Conference 2012, 6-7 September 2012, Paris.

Middleton, HelenHall, LynneHall, Marc and Morris, Adrian (2010) A Study into Drivers Perspective of Visual Comfort for Electric Vehicles. In: The 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, , 5-9 Nov 2010, Shenzhen, China .

Crolla, DaveHu, ZhuonengRen, QinglianMorris, Adrian and Kok, Dirk (2010) Design and Implementation of Power Management System for Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Buses. In: 25th World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition; EVS 25 , 5-9 Nov 2010, Shenzhen, China. (Unpublished)

Hall, LynneHall, MarcMiddleton, Helen and Morris, Adrian (2010) Future Scenarios: LCV and Software Sector. In: 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS 25), 5-8 Nov 2010, Shenzhen, China.

Hall, LynneHall, MarcMiddleton, Helen and Morris, Adrian (2010) A Study into Driver Perspective of Visual Comfort for Electric Vehicles. In: 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS 25), 7-9 November 2010, Shenzhen, China.

Ren, QinglianCrolla, Dave and Morris, Adrian (2009) Effect of transmission design on Electric Vehicle (EV) performance. In: 5th Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2009. VPPC '09. IEEE, 7-11 Sept 2009, Dearborn, MI, USA .

Morris, AdrianShort, Timothy DavidAppleton, M W and Garside, M J (2009) Matching the voice of the engineer to the voice of the customer; an evolution of QFD(Quality Function Development). In: ICED 09; 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, 24-27 Aug 2009 , Stanford, USA. (Unpublished)

Ren, QinglianCrolla, Dave and Morris, Adrian (2009) Effect of geared transmissions on electric vehicle drivetrains. In: ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference , 30 Aug – 02 Sep 2009 , San Diego, California, USA .

Crolla, DaveRen, Qinglian and Morris, Adrian (2009) Performance comparisons of single and dual epicyclic power split transmissions for hybrid electric vehicles. In: 12th EAEC European Automotive Congress; EAEC 2009, 29 Jun - 1 Jul 2009, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.